Changes in use of traditional methods of contraception

Although the focus of FP2020 is on modern methods, it is important to remember that many women globally are attempting to prevent pregnancies through the use of traditional methods. While these methods are often not very effective and result in unintended pregnancies, it is significant that the women using them are actively trying to avoid becoming pregnant.

Traditional use varies by country and region and over time, but in many countries women still rely on traditional methods. Figure 1 below shows an analysis for FP2020 countries in which the annual rate of change in traditional method use between the last two surveys was calculated [1]. In each country where there were two survey data points available, traditional use was compared across the two surveys. A negative value for a country means that traditional use decreased between the two surveys, whereas a positive value means that traditional use increased.

The results of this analysis show that, across the 68 countries examined here, 29 countries saw a decline in the use of traditional methods, while 29 countries had an increase in the use of these methods, and ten countries (in the center of the graph below) had annual rates of change of less than 0.1 percentage point, so can be categorized as showing minimal/no change. The largest annual increase was seen in Bangladesh (3.9 percentage points per year between a 2012-13 MICS and 2014 DHS) and the largest annual decrease was seen in Afghanistan (-2.2 percentage points per year between a 2007-8 National Survey and a 2010-11 MICS).

Eight countries (Afghanistan, Burundi, CAR, Congo, Cameroon, Nepal, Rwanda, Timor-Leste) saw annual decreases of 1 percentage point or more, while eight countries (Bangladesh, Ghana, Iraq, Nigeria, Philippines, State of Palestine, Sao Tome and Principe, Uganda) saw annual increases of 1 percentage point or more. It is important to note that in some of the countries which experienced significant decreases in traditional use (such as Congo, Cameroon, Rwanda and Sri Lanka), traditional use still remains high overall.


Annex : Sources and Annual Rate of Change in Traditional Method Use, by FP2020 Country

Country Name

Source 1

Source 2

Annual Rate of Change

Country Name

Source 1

Source 2

Annual Rate of Change

 

Afghanistan

MICS 2010-11

National Survey 2007-08 from UN WCU 2015

-2.2

Madagascar

DHS 2008-09

DHS 2003-04

0.4

Bangladesh

pDHS 2014 (Key Indicators)

MICS 2012-13

3.9

Malawi

MICS 2014

DHS 2010

-0.7

Benin

MICS 2014

DHS 2011-12

0.1

Mali

DHS 2012-13

DHS 2006

-0.1

Bhutan

MICS 2010

National Survey 2000 from UN WCU 2015

0.0

Mauritania

MICS 2011

MICS 2007

0.0

Bolivia

DHS 2008

DHS 2003

0.5

Mongolia

MICS 2013

MICS 2010

0.6

Burkina Faso

PMA2020 2014 R1

DHS 2010

-0.3

Mozambique

DHS 2011

MICS 2008

-0.4

Burundi

PMS 2012

DHS 2010

-1.4

Myanmar

MICS 2009-10

National Survey 2007 from UN WCU 2015

-0.9

Cambodia

pDHS 2014 (Key Indicators)

DHS 2010

0.5

Nepal

MICS 2014

DHS 2011

-1.3

Cameroon

DHS 2011

MICS 2006

-1.0

Nicaragua

DHS 2011-12 from UN WCU 2015

RHS 2006-07

0.2

CAR

MICS 2010

MICS 2006

-1.2

Niger

DHS 2012

DHS 2006

0.0

Chad

MICS 2010

DHS 2004

-0.2

Nigeria

DHS 2013

National Survey 2012 from UN WCU 2015

2.3

Comoros

DHS 2012

MICS 2000

0.0

Pakistan

DHS 2012-13

LSMS 2007-08 from UN WCU 2015

0.3

Congo

DHS 2011-12

DHS 2005

-1.1

Papua New Guinea

National Survey 2006

National Survey 1996-97 from UN WCU 2015

0.2

Cote d'Ivoire

DHS 2011-12

MICS 2006

0.4

Philippines

DHS 2013

National Survey 2011 from UN WCU 2015

2.7

Djibouti

PAPFAM 2012 from UN WCU 2015

MICS 2006

-0.1

Rwanda

DHS 2010

DHS 2007-08

-1.0

DPR Korea

DPRK 2010 RHS from WCU 2015

RHS DPR Korea 2002 from UN WCU 2015

-0.6

São Tomé and Príncipe

DHS 2008-09

MICS 2006

1.0

DR Congo

DHS 2013-14

MICS 2010

0.7

Senegal

DHS 2014

DHS 2012-13

0.1

Egypt

DHS 2014

DHS 2008

0.0

Sierra Leone

DHS 2013

MICS 2010

0.0

Eritrea

DHS 2002

DHS 1995

0.0

Somalia

MICS 2006

MICS 1999

0.0

Ethiopia

PMA2020 2015 R3

PMA2020 2014 R2

0.4

South Africa

DHS 2003

DHS 1998

-0.2

Gambia

DHS 2013

MICS 2010

-0.2

South Sudan

SHHS2 2010

National Survey 2006 from UN WCU 2015

0.5

Ghana

pDHS 2014 (Key Indicators)

PMA2020 2013 R1

3.4

Sri Lanka

DHS 2006-07

National Survey 2000 from UN WCU 2015

-0.7

Guinea

DHS 2012

DHS 2005

-0.3

State of Palestine

MICS 2014

MICS 2010

1.2

Guinea-Bissau

MICS 2014

MICS 2010

0.1

Sudan

MICS 2006 (SHHS) from WCU 2015

National Survey 1999 from UN WCU 2015

-0.2

Haiti

DHS 2012

DHS 2005-06

-0.6

Tajikistan

DHS 2012

LSMS 2007 from UN WCU 2015

-0.7

Honduras

DHS 2011-12

DHS 2005-06

0.1

Tanzania

DHS 2010

DHS 2004-05

0.1

India

(DLHS-3), 2007-08

DHS 2005-06

-0.6

Timor-Leste

DHS 2009-10

LSMS 2007 from UN WCU 2015

-1.1

Indonesia

Susenas 2014

Susenas 2013

0.2

Togo

DHS 2013-14

MICS 2010

0.3

Iraq

MICS 2011

MICS 2006

1.3

Uganda

PMA2020 2015 R2

PMA2020 2014 R1

1.6

Kenya

pDHS 2014 (Key Indicators)

DHS 2008-09

-0.2

Uzbekistan

MICS 2006

Health Examination Survey 2002

-0.5

Kyrgyzstan

MICS 2014

DHS 2012

-0.3

Vietnam

National Survey 2013 from UN WCU 2015

National Survey 2012 from WCU 2015

0.5

Lao PDR

MICS/DHS 2011-12

National Survey 2005 from UN WCU 2015

0.6

Yemen

pDHS 2013

MICS 2006

0.2

Lesotho

pDHS 2014 (Key Indicators)

DHS 2009

-0.2

Zambia

DHS 2013-14

DHS 2007

-0.6

Liberia

DHS 2013

DHS 2007

0.0

Zimbabwe

MICS 2014

DHS 2010-11

0.0



[1] Changes are calculated based on use of traditional/folk methods by women married/in union, in the two most recent comparable surveys (DHS, MICS, National, PMA2020) with data on traditional method use. Data for Solomon Islands and Western Sahara were unavailable. Values and sources are presented in the Annex below.

Published 2015